First and foremost, detailed characteristics of your analysis participants because of the sex were demonstrated given that percent with the respective 95% trust interval (CI)

First and foremost, detailed characteristics of your analysis participants because of the sex were demonstrated given that percent with the respective 95% trust interval (CI)

Sociodemographic characteristics integrated racial thinking-category (light otherwise low-light elizabeth.grams. black, brownish, reddish, or local), place of house (metropolitan otherwise rural), schooling (0–cuatro, 5–8, 9–11, otherwise ? 12 decades), and you may monthly domestic money for every single capita when you look at the tertiles (low, middle, otherwise highest). The brand new metropolitan–rural class is in accordance with the steps used by the fresh new Brazilian Institute away from Topography and Analytics (during the Portuguese, IBGE) within the 2010 inhabitants census from management restrictions set out of the local rules. In this each municipality’s limitations, this type of regional laws and regulations introduce a fictional line named “metropolitan fringe”. This new census tracts receive during the “urban edge” is actually called urban, whereas the residual areas is appointed outlying. Others recommendations try received owing to a face-to-face interview on participant’s home.

Anthropometric variables

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Analytical analysis

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).

The characteristics of one’s data users because of the sex can be seen for the Table 1. In both sexes, extremely members was non-light, lived-in the new town, got 0–4 years of schooling, and you may shown increased waist circumference. Regarding Body mass index, overweight is the most prevalent classification for males (42.9%), whenever you are heavy and you will carrying excess fat got nearly comparable wavelengths for females (thirty six.9% and you can thirty-five.4%, respectively). Of chronic disease, forty two.1% away from users said having a healthcare medical diagnosis off arterial blood pressure levels, 17.4% of diabetic issues mellitus, 11.5% regarding weakening of bones, eight.4% away from heart illness (angina, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular system incapacity), and you will 5.7% out of breathing sickness (symptoms of asthma and you will persistent obstructive pulmonary situation).

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